Oral on-the-fly Feedback – University of Copenhagen

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ASSIST-ME > Teachers > Oral on-the-fly Feedback

Oral on-the-fly Feedback


Oral on-the-fly feedback to students as they work


The feedback method "interactions on-the-fly" describes informal formative feedback.

"On-the-fly formative assessment arises when a "teachable moment" unexpectedly occurs, for example, when a teacher circulating and listening to the conversation among students in small groups overhears a students say that, as a consequence of her or his experiment, 'density is a property of the plastic block and I doesn't matter what the mass or volume is because the density stays the same for that kind of plastic.' The teacher recognizes the student's grasp of density and challenges the student with other materials to see if she or he and her or his group-mates can generalize the density idea."

(Shavelson et al., 2008).

ASSIST-ME suggests the following steps to increase the quality of oral on-the-fly feedback to small groups of students:

  1. The teacher suggests an activity in order to investigate a hypothesis that emerged during a discussion.

  2. The teacher poses a question that is intended to promote students' thinking about the topic being discussed.

  3. The teacher poses clarifying questions to help students furhter articulate a seemingly valid contribution they made.

  4. The teacher takes the opportunity to use what the student said in order to conclude/provide feedback.

  5. The students express several ideas that allow the teacher to ask them to compare the ideas.

  6. The teacher gets a contribution from the students and asks for further explanation with the intent to help them evaluate and adjust their reasoning.

Example of a teaching plan for the competences of investigations in science and argumentation in biology

Competence: Investigations in science and argumentation

Educational level: Upper Secondary (ages 15-17)

Context: Denmark

This example is a teaching plan for a teaching unit which consists of 18 lessons in total. The example contains learning objectives with corresponding learning progressions, schematic descriptions of lessons, activity plans, and an assessment plan.

Example: On-the-fly assessment of deduction of general laws from given experimental results

Assessment method: On-the-Fly

Competence in focus: Empirical investigations in science

Example: On-the-fly and self-assessment of written answers

Assessment method: On-the-Fly

Competence in focus: Engineering design in technology

Example: On-the-fly assessment of student arguments from a given case study

Assessment method: On-the-Fly

Competence in focus: Argumentation competence

Example: Interactions on-the-fly on oral presentations and concept maps

Assessment method: On-the-Fly

Competence in focus: Modelling competence

Example: Interactions on-the-fly on students’ artifacts

Assessment method: On-the-Fly

Competence in focus: Modelling competence

Example: Interactions on-the-fly on students’ discourse

Assessment method: On-the-Fly

Competence in focus: Modelling competence



You can find more material from the partner countries that implemented On-the-fly Feedback by clicking on the links below